Prescriptions and Controlled Substances
Adopted: Tue, 2011-02-22 - Modified: Wed, 2016-05-25
Back to Position Statements
The NC General Assembly enacted S.L. 2015-241, s. 12F, 16(a) requiring that the NC Board of Podiatry Examiners, among other health licensing boards, adopt the North Carolina Medical Board's Policy for the Use of Opiates for the Treatment of Pain, by July 1, 2016. The NC Board of Podiatry Examiners adopted said policy on March 9, 2016. However, in adopting the policy, the Board of Podiatry Examiners wished to note that the scope of practice of podiatrists (DPMs) in North Carolina is more restrictive than that of physicians and other health practitioners who are licensed by the NC Medical Board. One key distinction is that podiatrists more often treat acute pain rather than chronic pain. The Board of Podiatry Examiners had previously also adopted a series of public Position Statements on “Prescriptions and Controlled Substances” that more closely relates to podiatric scope of practice, as follows:
Reviewed 2014-11-13 - no changes
- Appropriate treatment of acute and chronic pain may include both pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic modalities. The Board realizes that controlled substances, including opioid analgesics, may be an essential part of the treatment regimen.
- All prescribing of controlled substances must comply with applicable state and federal laws.
- Guidelines for treatment include: (a) complete patient evaluation, (b) establishment of a treatment plan (contract), (c) informed consent, (d) periodic review, and (e) consultation with specialists in various treatment modalities as appropriate.
- Deviation from these guidelines will be considered on an individual basis for appropriateness.
Section I: Preamble
The North Carolina Board of Podiatry Examiners recognizes that principles of quality medical practice dictate that the people of the State of North Carolina have access to appropriate and effective pain relief. The appropriate application of up-to-date knowledge and treatment modalities can serve to improve the quality of life for those patients who suffer from pain as well as reduce the morbidity and costs associated with untreated or inappropriately treated pain. For the purposes of this policy, the inappropriate treatment of pain includes non-treatment, under-treatment, overtreatment, and the continued use of ineffective treatments.
The diagnosis and treatment of pain is integral to the practice of medicine. The Board encourages podiatrists to view pain management as a part of quality medical practice for all patients with pain, acute or chronic. All podiatrists should become knowledgeable about assessing patients' pain and effective methods of pain treatment, as well as statutory requirements for prescribing controlled substances. Accordingly, this policy has been developed to clarify the Board's position on pain control, particularly as related to the use of controlled substances, to alleviate podiatrist uncertainty and to encourage better pain management.
The Board recognizes that controlled substances including opioid analgesics may be essential in the treatment of acute pain due to trauma or surgery and chronic pain. The Board will refer to current clinical practice guidelines and expert review in regard to questions or complaints involving management of pain. The medical management of pain should consider current clinical knowledge and scientific research and the use of pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic modalities according to the judgment of the podiatrist. Pain should be assessed and treated promptly, and the quantity and frequency of doses should be adjusted according to the intensity, duration of the pain, and treatment outcomes. Podiatrists should recognize that tolerance and physical dependence are normal consequences of sustained use of opioid analgesics and are not the same as addiction.
The North Carolina Board of Podiatry Examiners is obligated under the laws of the State of North Carolina to protect the public health and safety. The Board recognizes that the use of opioid analgesics for other than legitimate medical purposes poses a threat to the individual and society and that the inappropriate prescribing of controlled substances, including opioid analgesics, may lead to drug diversion and abuse by individuals who seek them for other than legitimate medical use. Accordingly, the Board expects podiatrists to incorporate safeguards into their practices to minimize the potential for the abuse and diversion of controlled substances.
Podiatrists should not fear disciplinary action from the Board for ordering, prescribing, dispensing or administering controlled substances, including opioid analgesics, for a legitimate medical purpose and in the course of professional practice. The Board will consider prescribing, ordering, dispensing or administering controlled substances for pain to be for a legitimate medical purpose if based on sound clinical judgment. All such prescribing must be based on clear documentation of unrelieved pain. To be within the usual course of professional practice, a podiatrist-patient relationship must exist and the prescribing should be based on a diagnosis and documentation of unrelieved pain. Compliance with applicable state or federal law is required.
The Board will judge the validity of the podiatrist's treatment of the patient based on available documentation, rather than solely on the quantity and duration of medication administration. The podiatrist's goal is to control the patient's pain while effectively addressing other aspects of the patient's functioning, including physical, psychological, social, and work-related factors.
Allegations of inappropriate pain management will be evaluated on an individual basis. The Board will not take disciplinary action against a podiatrist for deviating from this policy when contemporaneous medical records document reasonable cause for deviation. The podiatrist's conduct will be evaluated to a great extent by the outcome of pain treatment, recognizing that some types of pain cannot be completely relieved, and by taking into account whether the drug used is appropriate for the diagnosis, as well as improvement in patient functioning and/or quality of life.
Section II: Guidelines
The Board has adopted the following criteria when evaluating the podiatrist's treatment of pain, including the use of controlled substances:
Evaluation of the Patient - A medical history and physical examination must be obtained, evaluated, and documented in the medical record. The medical record should document the nature and intensity of the pain, current and past treatments for pain, underlying or coexisting diseases or conditions, the effect of the pain on physical and psychological function, and history of substance abuse. The medical record also should document the presence of one or more recognized medical indications for the use of a controlled substance. Patients with chronic pain should generally be referred to a pain management clinic.
Treatment Plan - The written treatment plan should state objectives that will be used to determine treatment success, such as pain relief and improved physical and psychosocial function, and should indicate if any further diagnostic evaluations or other treatments are planned. After treatment begins, the podiatrist should adjust drug therapy to the individual medical needs of each patient. Other treatment modalities or a rehabilitation program may be necessary depending on the etiology of the pain and the extent to which the pain is associated with physical and psychosocial impairment.
Informed Consent and Agreement for Treatment - The podiatrist should discuss the risks and benefits of the use of controlled substances with the patient, persons designated by the patient or with the patient's surrogate or guardian if the patient is without medical decision-making capacity. The patient should receive prescriptions from one provider and one pharmacy whenever possible. If the patient is at high risk for medication abuse or has a history of substance abuse, the podiatrist should consider referring the patient to a pain management clinic, even in situations where the pain is acute.
Periodic Review - The podiatrist should periodically review the course of pain treatment and any new information about the etiology of the pain or the patient's state of health. Continuation or modification of controlled substances for pain management therapy depends on the podiatrist's evaluation of progress toward treatment objectives. Satisfactory response to treatment may be indicated by the patient's decreased pain, increased level of function, or improved quality of life. Objective evidence of improved or diminished function should be monitored and information from family members or other caregivers should be considered in determining the patient's response to treatment. If the patient's progress is unsatisfactory, the podiatrist should assess the appropriateness of continued use of the current treatment plan and consider the use of other therapeutic modalities. Reviewing the North Carolina Controlled Substance Reporting Service should be considered if inappropriate medication usage is suspected and intermittently on all patients.
Consultation - The podiatrist should be willing to refer the patient as necessary for additional evaluation and treatment in order to achieve treatment objectives. Special attention should be given to those patients with pain who are at risk for medication misuse, abuse, or diversion. The management of pain in patients with a history of substance abuse or with a comorbid psychiatric disorder may require extra care, monitoring, documentation and consultation with or referral to an expert in the management of such patients.
Medical Records - The podiatrist should keep accurate and complete records
- the medical history and physical examination,
- diagnostic, therapeutic and laboratory results,
- evaluations and consultations,
- treatment objectives,
- discussion of risks and benefits,
- informed consent,
- medications (including date, type, dosage and quantity prescribed),
- instructions and agreements and
- periodic reviews including review of the North Carolina Controlled Substance Reporting Service.
Records should remain current and be maintained in an accessible manner and readily available for review.
Compliance With Controlled Substances Laws and Regulations- To prescribe, dispense or administer controlled substances, the podiatrist must be licensed in the state and comply with applicable federal and state regulations. Podiatrists are referred to the Podiatrists Manual of the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration and any relevant documents issued by the state of North Carolina for specific rules governing controlled substances as well as applicable state regulations.
Section III: Definitions
For the purposes of these guidelines, the following terms are defined as follows:
Acute Pain - Acute pain is the normal, predicted physiological response to a noxious chemical, thermal or mechanical stimulus and typically is associated with invasive procedures, trauma and disease. It is generally time-limited.
Addiction - Addiction is a primary, chronic, neurobiologic disease, with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. It is characterized by behaviors that include the following: impaired control over drug use, craving, compulsive use, and continued use despite harm. Physical dependence and tolerance are normal physiological consequences of extended opioid therapy for pain and are not the same as addiction.
Chronic Pain - Chronic pain is a state in which pain persists beyond the usual course of an acute disease or healing of an injury, or that may or may not be associated with an acute or chronic pathologic process that causes continuous or intermittent pain over months or years.
Pain - An unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage or described in terms of such damage.
Physical Dependence - Physical dependence is a state of adaptation that is manifested by drug class-specific signs and symptoms that can be produced by abrupt cessation, rapid dose reduction, decreasing blood level of the drug, and/or administration of an antagonist. Physical dependence, by itself, does not equate with addiction.
Pseudoaddiction - This is the iatrogenic syndrome that results from the misinterpretation of relief-seeking behaviors as though they are drug-seeking behaviors that are commonly seen with addiction. The relief-seeking behaviors resolve upon institution of effective analgesic therapy.
Substance Abuse - Substance abuse is the use of any substance(s) for non-therapeutic purposes or use of medication for purposes other than those for which it is prescribed.
Tolerance - Tolerance is a physiologic state resulting from regular use of a drug in which an increased dosage is needed to produce a specific effect, or a reduced effect is observed with a constant dose over time. Tolerance may or may not be evident during opioid treatment and does not equate with addiction.